Chapter 9 DevelopmentThis is a featured page

Key Issue #1 Why does development vary among countries?

Economic Indicators of Development - Catherine
Gross domestic product per capita is the economic indicator included in the Human Development Index (HDI). Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
  • The average individual earns a much higher income in an MDC than in an LDC.
  • Per capita income is a difficult figure to obtain in many countries.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
  • LDCs have made progress in raising per capita GDP.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
  • GDP is higher in MDCs because people typically earn their living by different means.
  • Workers in MDCs are more productive than those in LDCs.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
  • Development requires access to raw materials that can be fashioned into useful products.
  • Part of the wealth generated in MDCs is used to purchase goods and services.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

Comprehension Questions

Why is GDP higher in MDCs than in LDCs?
What are the 3 things that are higher in MDCs?
What do MDCs spend part of their wealth on?



Social Indicators of Development - Catherine

MDCs use part of their greater wealth to provide schools, hospitals, and welfare services.
  • The higher the level of development, the greater are both the quantity and the quality of a country’s education.
  • People are healthier in MDCs than in LDCs.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
  • The MDCs use part of their wealth to protect people who are unable to work.
  • An average pupil attends school for an average 10 years in MDCs, while in LDCs only a couple of years.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

Comprehension Questions

What are the advantages in living in MDCs?






Demographic Indicators of Development - Elliot

MDCs display many demographic differences compared to LDCs. The United Nations’s HDI utilizes life expectancy as a measure of development. Other demographic characteristics that distinguish more and less developed countries include infant mortality, natural increase, and crude birth rates.
LIFE EXPECTANCY
Better health and welfare in developed countries permit people to live longer. Life expectancy at birth was defined as the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels. Babies born today can expect to live at into their sixties in LDCs compared to their seventies in MDCs. The gap in life expectancy is greater for females than for males. Males can expect to live 10 years longer in MDCs than in LDCs, whereas females can expect to live 13 longer in MDCs.
INFANT MORTALITY RATE
Better health and welfare also permit more babies to survive infancy in MDCs. About 94 percent of infants survive and 6 percent die in LDCs, whereas in MDCs more than 99.5 percent survive and fewer than one-half of 1 percent perish. The infant mortality rate is greater in LDCs because babies may die from malnutrition, lack of medicine needed to survive illnesses, and from poor medical practices due to lack of education.
NATURAL INCREASE RATE
The natural increase rate averages 1.5 percent annually in LDCs compared to only one-tenth of 1 percent in MDCs. Greater natural increase strains a country’s ability to provide hospitals, schools, jobs, and other services that can make its people healthier and more productive. Many LDCs must allocate increasing percentages of their GDPs just to care for the rapidly expanding population rather than to improve care for the current population.
CRUDE BIRTH RATE
LDCs have higher natural increase rates because they have higher crude birth rates. The annual crude birth rate is 24 per 1,000 in LDCs, compared to 11 per 1,000 in MDCs. Women in MDCs choose to have fewer babies for various economic and social reasons, and they have access to varied birth-control devices to achieve this goal.






COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1.What is life expectancy?
2. What is the infant mortality rate?
3. What is the natural increase rate?
4. What is the crude birth rate?

Key Issue #2 Where are more and less developed countries distributed?

More Developed Regions - Elliot
Three of the nine major cultural regions – Anglo-America, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe, plus Japan and the South Pacific – are considered more developed. The other six regions are considered less developed.
ANGLO-AMERICA
Language and religious patterns are less diverse in Anglo-America than in other world regions. More than 90 percent of the region’s people use English as their first language and adhere to Christianity. Cultural diversity generates some tensions in the region, including discrimination against ethnic minorities, intolerance of other Christian sects as well as non-Christian faiths, and uncertain status of French-speaking Quebecois. However, Anglo-America’s relative homogeneity reduces the possibility that a large minority will be excluded from participating in the region’s economy on the basis of cultural characteristics.
WESTERN EUROPE
On a global scale, Western Europe displays cultural unity, because nearly all Western Europeans speak an Indo-European language and adhere to Christianity. However, the diversity of individual languages and religious practices has been a longtime source of conflict in Western Europe, especially when strong national identities were forged out of distinctive ethnic traditions and historical experiences.
EASTERN EUROPE
Eastern Europe has the dubious distinction of being the only region where the HDI has declined significantly since the United Nations created the index in 1990. Eastern Europe clearly ranked among the world’s more developed regions in 1990, and it had an HDI only slightly behind those of Western Europe and Anglo-America. By 2000, Eastern Europe’s HDI had declined to the level of Latin America, which is classified as a less developed region.
JAPAN
Anglo-America and Western Europe share many cultural characteristics. Anglo-America was colonized by European immigrants, so the regions share language, religion, and other political, economic, and cultural traditions. From the perspective of LDCs, the economic influence wielded by these two regions is closely intertwined with the global influence of European and American culture. Japan, the third major center of development, has a different cultural tradition.
SOUTH PACIFIC
The South Pacific has a relatively high HDI but is much less central to the global economy because of its small number of inhabitants and peripheral location. The HDIs of Australia and New Zealand are comparable to those of other MDCs. The area’s remaining people are scattered among sparsely inhabited islands that generally are less developed.

Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008


COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What are three of the nine major cultural regions?
2. Describe the culture in Anglo-America.



Less Developed Regions - Eric
A developing country is a country that has low standards of democratic government, industrialization, social programs, and human rights guarantees for its citizens.Countries with more advanced economies than other developing nations, but which have not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country, are grouped under the term newly industrialized countries. The application of the term developing country to any country which is not developed is inappropriate because a number of poor countries have experienced prolonged periods of economic decline. Such countries are classified as either less develop countries or faild states.Development entails a modern infrastructure (both physical and institutional), and a move away from low value added sectors such as agriculture and natural resource extraction. Developed countries, in comparison, usually have economic system based on continuous, self-sustaining economic growth in the tertiary and quaternary sectors and high standards.

File:World Bank income groups.svg Blue :High income Green: Upper-middle income Purple: Lower-middle income File:Imf-advanced-un-least-developed-2008.svg Blue: Advanced economies Orange : Emerging and developing economies (not least developed) Red :Emerging and developing economies
File:Newly Industrialized Country.png
Newly Industrialized countries of 2008

Key Issue #3 Where does level of development vary by gender?

Gender-Related Development Index-Eric
The Gender-related Development Index (GDI) is an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN). It is one of the five indicators used by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report. It aims to show the inequalities between men and women in the following areas: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living.
Methodology
Calculating the GDI involves three steps. Step 1: Unit-free indicies between 0 and 1 are calculated for females and males in each of the following areas:
  1. life expectancy,
  2. education (the adult literacy rate and the combined primary to tertiary gross enrollment ratio),
  3. estimated earned income (at Purchasing power quantity US$).
  • Female Life Expectancy Index = \frac{\mbox{female life expectancy} - 27.5} {87.5-27.5}
  • Male Life Expectancy Index = \frac{\mbox{male life expectancy} - 22.5} {82.5-22.5}
  • Female & Male Education Indices = \frac{2} {3}\frac{\mbox{adult literacy rate of gender}} {100}+ \frac{1} {3}\frac{\mbox{gross enrollment rate of gender}} {100}
  • Female & Male Income Indices = \frac{log(\mbox{earned income of gender}) - log(100)} {log(40,000)-log(100)}
Step 2: For each area, the pair of gender indices, are combined into an Equally Distributed Index that rewards gender equality and penalizes inequality. It is calculated as the harmonic mean of the two indices.
  • Equally Distributed index = \left(\frac{\mbox{female share of population}}{\mbox{female-index}}+\frac{\mbox{male share of population}}{\mbox{male-index}}\right)^{-1}
Step 3: The GDI is the unweighted average of the three Equally Distributed Indices: Equally distributed life expectancy index, Equally distributed education index, Equally distributed income index.

Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
Gender related index

Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
Gender related index

Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
Gender related index

Comprehension Question
Name two less develop countries?
Why are these countries less develop?
Name two of the top ten rank countries with human develpment index?

Geography Standard 1 is related to my topic because my topic talks about less develop countries of the world by the use of maps and observing the enviroment. Also the GRDI is about the standard living of the people in a country.

Gender Empowerment- Sheik

The GDI reflects improvements in the standard of living and well being of women, whereas the GEM measures the ability of women to participate in the process of achieving those improvements. In every country of the world, both MDCs and LDCs, fewer women than men hold positions of economic and political power, according to the United Nations GEM scoring system

The GEM is calculated by combining two indicators of economic power and two indicators of political power. A country with complete equality power between men and women would have a score of 1.0. as with GDI, countries with the highest GEMs are MDCs especially in north America , northern Europe, and the south pacific. The lowest scores are in North Africa and Asia, through lack of data prevents calculating scores in most LDCs.

Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
The percentage of women occupying professional and technical jobs is considered an important measure of the economic power held by women in a country. Professional and technical jobs are regarded by the United Nations as those offering women the greatest opportunities for advancement to positions of influence in a country’s economy. Cultural barriers may restrict the ability of women to obtain these jobs in the first place or to secure promotions to top level decision-making positions.


The largest percentages of women in professional and technical jobs are in northern Europe. More than one half of professionals and technical workers there as well as in North America, are women. In comparison fewer than one half of professional and technical jobs are held by women in most LDCs where data are available.

One indicator of the political power of women is the percentage of the country administrative and managerial job they hold. The United Nations considers professional jobs already discussed to be a key measure of economic power, whereas managerial jobs represent the ability to influence the process of decision making.

QUESTION
What is the main difference between A GDI and the GEM?

standard of geography:
this topic apply to standard number four. The reason why is because some religions prevent women form holding high positions in the government, businesses or religions of some country's.


Key Issue #4 Why do less developed countries face obstaclesto development

Development Through Self-Sufficiency-Sheik
For most of the 20th century, self sufficiency, or balanced growth, was the most popular of the developed alternatives. The worlds two most populous countries, china and India, once adopted this strategy, as it did most African and eastern European countries.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
According to the balanced growth approach, a country should spread investment as equally as possible across all sectors of its economy and in all regions. The pace of development may be modest but the system is fair because residence and enterprises throughout the country share the benefits of development. Under self sufficiency, incomes in the countryside keep pace with those in the city, and reducing poverty takes precedence over encouraging a few people to become wealthy consumers.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
Countries promote self sufficiently by setting barriers that limit the import of goods from other places, three widely used barriers include setting high taxes on imported goods to make them more expensive than domestic goods, fixing quotas to limit the quantity of imported goods, and requiring licenses to restrict the number of legal importers. The approach also restricts local business from exporting to other countries.

Question:
what are the elements to becoming self sufficient?

standard of geography:
this topic apply to standard number 15. one example in is in the middle east. the middle east has a good amount of the worlds oil. they use the profits from the oil to build up there economy.

Financing Development-Ashley
Regardless of weather self-sufficiency or international trade is preferred, LDC's lack the money needed to finace development. The LDC's generall must obtain funds from MDC's. These funds come from 2 primary sources- loans from banks and international organizations- (the theory behind borrowing money to build infrastucture is that it will help make living conditions better in the LDC's and the taxes they collect will go to help repay the loans.)
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
or direct investment by transnational corporations
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

The IMF, World Bank, and MDC's fear that granting, canceling, or refinacing debts without strings attached will prepetuate bad habits in the LDC's. Therefore before granting a releif an LDC is required to prepare a policy framework paper (pfp) outlining a Structural Adjustment Program, which includes economic goals, strategies for acheiving the objectives, and external finacing requirements.
When with this program LDC's can only spend what the can afford and must have direct benefits to the poor and not the elite.



1. Where are the primary sources for funding the LDC's
2. WHat is the Structural Adjustment Program
3. What is its purpose
Fair Trade-Ashley
Fair trade means that products are made and traded accoring to standards that protect workers and small business in LDC's and is an organized social movements and market-based approach to empowering developing country producers and promoting sustainability.
Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008


The movement advocates the payment of a fair price as well as social and environmental standards in areas related to the production of a wide variety of goods. It focuses in particular on exports from developing countries to developed countries, most notably
coffeeChapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008tea,Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008banana,Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
choclate, cocoa,Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008 juice,Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008 sugar,Chapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
honey productsChapter 9 Development - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008



Fair trade advocates work with small business. Small scale farmers and artisans in LDC's are unable to borrow from banks the money they need to invest into their business. By banding together the can get credit, reduce their raw material cost, and maintain higher and fairer prices for their products.




Most work standards dont have protection of the workers rights, they work long hours and minimum pay and includes children. Health problems often occur because of poor sanitation and inadequate saftly guidelines.


But in contrast Fair trade requires emplyers to pay workers fairly, permit union organization, and comply with the minimum enviormental safty rules.

Special Topics:
Sustainable Development and Public Policy-Sierra
Sustainable Devlopment and Public Policy
Sustainable Devlopment Go to fullsize image

The DSD promotes sustainable development as the substantive secretariat to the CSD and through technical cooperation and capacity-building at the international, regional and national levels.The achievement of sustainable development requires the integration of its economic, environmental and social components at all levels.

This is facilitated by continuous dialogue and action in global partnership, focusing on key sustainable development issuesSustainable development in the Government is about planning and carrying out our missions with full awareness of the internal and external environmental, economic and social factors that could affect the achievement of long-term goals. In today's competition for limited funds, resources, and workers, organizations must demonstrate commitment to long-term value.

The best value for the American people is more than just he lowest first cost. Choices for government programs require promoting efficient resource allocation through well-informed decision-making. GSA promotes best practices in real property throughout the entire real property lifecycle as a continuing commitment to help make the U.S. government more sustainable.

Go to fullsize image



Go to fullsize image
Public Public policy is an attempt by the government to address a public issue. The government, whether it is city, state, or federal, develops public policy in terms of laws, regulations, decisions, and actions.

There are three parts to public policy-making: problems, players, and the policy.

Public policy is whatever governments choose to do or not to do. Although some may argue that policies are required to be purposeful or goal-oriented action, some policies may be implicit or result from a set of non-directly related actions. In general, purposeful or not, those actions comprise regulation, organization, distribution or re-distribution, and enforcement. In public policy, students use the tools of economics, philosophy, and political science to evaluate current government programs and policies, and to design new and better policies.

In each area of government policy, students ask the same basic questions:
1) Is this policy economically feasible, and what are its costs and benefits to society?,

2) Is this policy morally defensible?, and

3) Is this policy politically viable?

The range of issues studied by students in the major is enormous. Students have focused on subjects as diverse as
  • crime,
  • domestic violence,
  • economic development,
  • education,
  • the environment,
  • foster care, health care,
  • juvenile delinquency,
  • refugees,
  • Social Security,
  • transportation,
  • and welfare.

United States Agency for Internation Development-Sierra

United States Agency for Internation Devlopment






The United States Agency for internationl development is the United States fedearl goverment organization responsible for the most non-military foregin aid. An independent federal agency, recieves

European Union's International Development-Chey

Since its origin, the EU has established a single economic market across the territory of all its members. Currently, a single currency is in use between the 16 members of the eurozone. Considered as a single economy, the EU generated an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of US$16.83 trillion in 2007, amounting to 31% of the world's total economic output, which makes it the largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the second largest trade bloc economy in the world by PPP valuation of GDP. It is also the largest exporter of goods, the second largest importer, and the biggest trading partner to several large countries such as India, and China.
170 of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue (Fortune Global 500) have their headquarters in the EU. In May 2007 unemployment in the EU stood at 7% while investment was at 21.4% of GDP, inflation at 2.2% and public deficit at -0.9% of GDP. There is a great deal of variance for annual per capita income within individual EU states, these range from US$7,000 to US$69,000.

European Union - An introduction to the Institutions:


World Bank and International Development- Chey


The International Development Association (IDA) , is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. It complements the World Bank's other lending arm — the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) — which serves middle-income countries with capital investment and advisory services. IDA was created on September 24, 1960 and is responsible for providing long-term, interest-free loans to the world's 80 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. IDA provides grants and credits (subject to general conditions (pdf)), with repayment periods of 35 to 40 years. Since its inception, IDA credits and grants have totaled $161 billion, averaging $7–$9 billion a year in recent years and directing the largest share, about 50%, to Africa. While the IBRD raises most of its funds on the world's financial markets, IDA is funded largely by contributions from the governments of the richer member countries. Additional funds come from IBRD income and repayment of IDA credits. IDA loans address primary education, basic health services, clean water supply and sanitation, environmental safeguards, business-climate improvements, infrastructure and institutional reforms. These projects are intended to pave the way toward economic growth, job creation, higher incomes and better living conditions. IDA critics allege the improper use of financial resources, and object to a voting structure based on financial contributions (the largest being from the U.S. until 2007, when it was overtaken by the United Kingdom). Others criticize the IDA for its promotion of free trade, which some see as a means of oppression by the World Bank Group.

IBRD loans and IDA credits in 2005:
IBRD loans and IDA credits in 2005

Mission Statement:

The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that helps the earth’s poorest countries reduce poverty by providing no- interest loans and grants for programs aimed at boosting economic growth and improving living conditions. IDA funds help these countries deal with the complex challenges they face in striving to meet the Millennium Development Goals. They must, for example, respond to the competitive pressures as well as the opportunities of globalization; arrest the spread of HIV/AIDS; and prevent conflict or deal with its aftermath. IDA’s long-term (streched over 35 to 40 years), no-interest loans pay for programs that build the policies, institutions, infrastructure and human capital needed for equitable and environmentally sustainable development. IDA’s goal is to reduce inequalities both across and within countries by allowing more people to participate in the mainstream economy, reducing poverty and promoting more equal access to the opportunities created by economic growth.IDA also provides grants to countries at risk of debt distress.

History:

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), better known as the World Bank, was established in 1944 to help Europe recover from the devastation of World War II. The success of that enterprise led the Bank, within a few years, to turn its attention to the developing countries. By the 1950s, it became clear that the poorest developing countries needed softer terms than those that could be offered by the Bank, so they could afford to borrow the capital they needed to grow. With the United States taking the initiative, a group of the Bank’s member countries decided to set up an agency that could lend to the poorest countries on the most favourable terms possible. They called the agency the "International Development Association." Its founders saw IDA as a way for the "haves" of the world to help the "have-nots." But they also wanted IDA to be run with the discipline of a bank. For this reason, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed, and other countries agreed, that IDA should be part of the World Bank (IBRD). IDA's Articles of Agreement became effective in 1960. The first IDA loans, known as credits, were approved in 1961 to Chile, Honduras, India and Sudan. IBRD and IDA are run on the same lines. They share the same staff and headquarters, report to the same president and evaluate projects with the same rigorous standards. But IDA and IBRD draw on different resources for their lending, and because IDA’s loans are deeply concessional, IDA’s resources must be periodically replenished (see "IDA Funding" below). A country must be a member of IBRD before it can join IDA; 165 countries are IDA members.

Website Link:
IDA Website

Comprehension Questions
  1. How many Fortune 500 companies are in the EU?
  2. What year was the IBRD established?
  3. Summarize the IBRD's mission.
  4. Where was the largest concentration of IBRD loans & IDA credits in 2005?


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