Chapter 3 MigrationThis is a featured page

Key Issue #1- Why Do People Migrate?

Reasons for Migrating - Ashley

Since man has been on earth, ethnic groups have again and again travelled to other regions in the world hoping to find a better basis for existence there. In recent centuries wars have repeatedly triggered mass displacements of refugees. In recent decades global migration has reached a hitherto unknown level. Surveys conducted by international organizations have concluded that currently over 175 million people are living far away from their native countries. 19,2 million people are considered to be ‘refugees’ or ‘displaced persons’.

Most people migrate for economic reasons. Cultural and environmental factors also induce migration, although not as frequently as economic factors.
A push factor is a factor that drives someone out of a location into a new one
  • Not enough jobs
  • Few opportunities
  • "Primitive" conditions
  • Political fear
  • Poor medical care
  • Not being able to practice religion
  • Loss of wealth
  • Natural Disasters
  • Death threats
  • Slavery
  • Pollution
  • Poor housing
  • Landlords
  • Bullying
  • Poor chances of finding courtship
  • Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

  • A pull factor is a factor that makes someone move into a new location
  • Job opportunities
  • Better living conditions
  • Political and/or religious freedom
  • Enjoyment
  • Education
  • Better medical care
  • Security
  • Family links Better chances of finding courtship
  • - 7k -

    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
    Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). - 214k - are people that have been forced out of their homes and cannot return out of fear of persecution due to race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.

    Distance of Migration- Ashley

    Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country.
  • Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity.
  • Internal Migration
    International Migration is the permanent movement from one country to another.
  • Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
  • Internal Migration is the permanent movement within the same country Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

    Interregional Migration is the movement from region of a country to another
    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

    Intraregional Migration is the movement within the same region

    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

    Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country.Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity.Internal MigrationInternational Migration is the permanent movement from one country to another.Internal Migration is the permanent movement within the same countryInterregionalEurope Migrationmany isguest theworkers movementsuffer from region of a countrysocial toconditions.the anotherIntraregionalguest Migrationworker is the movement within the same region

    Characteristics of Migrants -Elliot

    E.G. Ravenstein noted distinctive gender and family-status patterns in his migration theories:
  • Most long-distance migrants are male.
  • Most long-distance migrants are adult individuals ratherimmigration than families with children.
    Gender of Migrants

    A century ago, Ravenstein theorized that males were more likely than females to migrate long distances to other countries, because searching for work was the main reason for internation migration, and males were much more like than females to be employed. This held true for U.S. immigrants: during the nineteenth and much of the twientieth centuries, about 55 percent were male. But the gender pattern reversed in the 1990's, and women now constitute about 55 percent of U.S. immigrants.

    Family Status of Migrants
    Ravenstein also believed that most long-distance migrants were young adults seeking work, rather than children or elderly people. For the most part, this pattern continues for the United States. About 40 percent of immigrants are between the ages of 25 and 39, compared to about 23 percent of the entire U.S. population. An increasing percentage of U.S. immigrants are children -- 16 percent of immigrants are under age 15, compared to 21 percent for the total U.S. population. With the increase in women migrating to the United States, more children are coming with their mothers. Most Illegal Mexican immigrants have jobs in their home villages but migrate to the United States to earn more money. The largest number work in agriculture, picking fruits and vegetables, although some work in clothing factories. Even those who work long hours for a few dollars a day as farm laborers or factory workers prefer to earn relatively low wages by American standards than to live in poverty at home. Most undocumented residents have no difficulty finding jobs in the United States. Some employers like to hire immigrants who do not have visas that permit them to work in the United States, because they can pay lower wages and do not have to provide health care, retirement plans, and other benefits.

    Comprehension Questions
    1. At first, which gender migrated the most?
    2. What was the main reason for international migration?
    3. Were most migrants young or old?
    4. Describe some types of jobs migrants usually worked in.
    5. Why did employers like to employ undocumented immigrants?

    Key Issue #2 – Where are Migrants Distributed?
    Global Migration Patterns - Elliot

    At a global scale, Asia, Latin America, and Africa have net out-migration, whereas North America, Europe, Oceania have net in-migration. The three largest flows of migrants are to Europe from Asia and to North America from Asia and from Latin America. Substantial in-migration also occurs from Europe to North America and from Asia to Oceania. Lower levels of net migration occur from Latin America to Oceania and from Africa to Europe, North America, and Oceania. The global pattern reflects the importance of migration from less developed countries to more developed countries. Migrants from countries with relatively low incomes and high natural increase rates head for relatively wealthy countries, where job prospects are brighter.
    The population of the United States includes about 35 million individuals born in other countries. More than one-half of these immigrants were born in Latin America and one-fourth in Asia. More than one-half of the Latin American immigrants came from Mexico. Other countries with a large number of immigrants include Australia, Canada, France, Germany, India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Kingdom. Immigrants comprise 12 percent of the population in the United States. Although it contains the largest number of immigrants, the United States has a smaller percentage of immigrants than several less populous countries. One-fourth of the Australian population and one-sixth of the Canadian population are immigrants. The overall percentage of immigrates in Europe is around 5 percent, lower than in the United States, thought it is much higher in smaller European countries, such as Luxembourg and Switzerland.
    The highest percentage of immigrants can be found in the Middle East, at about one-half of the region's total population. The population of the United Arab Emirates is made up of approximately 74 percent immigrants, and Kuwait 68 percent. These countries and other petroleum-exporting countries of the Middle East attract immigrants primarily from poorer Middle Eastern countries and from Asia to perform many of the dirty and dangerous functions in the oil fields.

    Comprehension Questions
    1. Which areas of the world have net in-migration and net out-migration?
    2. Where do immigrants tend to migrate?
    3. What percent of United States is populated by immigrants?

    U.S. Immigration Patterns - Eric
  • refers to the movement of non-residence to the United States. Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of American history. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ehnicity,religion, economic benifits, job growth, settlement pattern, impact on upward mobility, levels of crime, nationalities, political loyalties, moral values, and work habits. As of 2006, the United States accepts more legal immigrants as permanent residents than any other country in the world. In 2006, the number of immigrants totaled 37.5 million.
    While an influx of new residents from different cultures presents some challenges, "the United States has always been energized by its immigrant populations..." At the 1998 commencement address at Portland State University, U.S. president Bill Clinton voiced support for immigrants, including immigrants from Asia and Latin America when he said that "America has constantly drawn strength and spirit from wave after wave of immigrants...They have proved to be the most restless, the most adventurous, the most innovative, the most industrious of people.
    Given the distance of North America from Eurasia, most historical U.S. immigration was risky. International jet travel has facilitated travel to the United States since the 1960s, but migration remains difficult, expensive and dangerous for those who cross the United States-Mexico border illegally.
    Recent immigration-related proposals have suggested enforcing existing laws with regard to illegal immigrants, building a barrier along some or all of the 2,000-mile (3,200 km) U.S.-Mexico border, and creating a new guest workerprogram.Through much of 2006, the country and Congress was immersed in a debate about these proposals. As of March 2007, few of these proposals had become law, though a partial border fence was approved. Many cities, including Washington Dc., New york city, Los Angeles, Chicago, etc these cities have adopted “sanctuary” ordinances banning police from asking people about their immigration status.

    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

    Impact Of Immigration on the United States - Eric
  • Immigration is now what keeps America growing. According to the UN the typical American woman today bears 1.93 children. That is below the 2.1 "replacement" rate required to keep a population stable over time, absent immigration. The Census Bureau estimates the US population will grow from 281 million in 2000 to 397 mil in 2050 with expected immigration, but only to 328 mil with zero immigration. "If we have zero immigration with today's low birthrates the American population would eventually begin to shrink.
  • Image:Census-2000-Data-Top-US-Ancestries-by-County.svg
  • Economic
    Hispanic immigrants across the United States are being hit hard by the subprime morgage crises. There is a disproportionate level of foreclosures in some immigrant neighborhoods.
    The banking industry provided home loans to undocuented immigrants, viewing it as an untapped resource for growing their own revenue stream. In October 2008, reported that according to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, five million illegal immigrants hold fraudulent home mortgages.The story was later pulled from their website and replaced with a correction.The Phenix business journels cited a HUD spokesman saying there is no basis to news reports that more than 5 million bad mortgages are held by illegal immigants, and that the agency has no data showing the number of illegal immigrants holding foreclosed or bad mortgages. Radio hosts Rush limbough and Lee Rodgers repeated a variation of the claim without noting that HUD has reportedly stated that this statistic is false. Roger Hegecock also repeated the incorrect claim on CNN's lou dubbs show.
  • SocialThe more contact a native-born American has with immigrants, typically the more positive view of immigrants one has. The less contact a native-born American has with immigrants, the more likely one would have a negative view of immigrants.
  • Farmworkers Harvest First Spring Crops In Southern California
    Immigrants add about $37 billion a year to the U.S. economy, according to one recent estimate, but do the costs of illegal immigration outweigh that benefit?
  • Political
  • Immigrants differ on their political views; however, the Deographic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position among immigrants overall.However, immigrants are similar to the broader US population in that their religious affiliation can significantly impact both their social values and votes. Hispanic evangelicals, for example, are even more strongly conservative than non-hispanic evangelicals . This trend is often similar for Hispanics or others strongly identifying with Catholism - a religion that strongly opposes abortion and gay marriage.

    Picture Not Available

    What does immigration refers to?
    Name one type of race that are being hit hard by economic crises?
    Which party is strong among immigrants?

  • Key Issue #3 – Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?

    Immigration Policies of Host Countries - Sheik
    Countries to which immigrants migrate have adopted two policies to control the arrival of foreigners seeking work. The United States uses a quota system to limit the amount of people who could immigrant to the United States from each country during a one year period. Other major countries permit guest workers to work temporarily but not stay permanently. The First restriction was the Immigration Quota Act of 1921. This limited European immigration initially to 3 percent of each country's foreign-born population in the U.S. This restriction was subsequently reduced to 2 percent of each nation's number of foreign-born residents as of the 1890 census. This shift had the effect of discriminating against those from Southern and Eastern Europe, oppose who government got programs to the U.S. primarily after 1890.some countries were shut out by these laws (countries that were shut out) immigration
    Following the immigration act of 1965, quotas for individual countries were eliminated in 1968imporve and replaced with hemisphere quotas. In 1978, the hemisphere quotas were replaced by a global quota of 290,000 including a maximum of 20,000 per country. The current law has a global quota of 620,000. Because of the number of applicants for admission to the u.s far exceeds quotas, congress has set preferences. The current law permits up to 480,000 family sponsored immigrants plus 140,000 employment related immigrants. The typical wait for a spouse to gain entry into the u.s is about 5 years. Skilled workers receive about 1/4 of visas. Some support of retractions today's on immigrants to the united states are poor people pushed from their homes by economic desperation, but mast are young, well educated people are lured to economically growing countries. Scientists, researchers, doctors, and other professionals migrate to the u.s to make more money in their field of work. BRIAN DRAINO

    There country's people unable to migrate permanently to a new country for employment may be allowed to migrate temporarily. Prominent forms of temporary work migrants include guest workers in Europe, the Middle East have and gained Asia. People who obtain work in Europe and the Middle East are called GUEST WORKERS. About 700,000 immigrants enter Europe legally each year, plus an estimated 500,000 illegally. Guest worker sever alike useful in France role in Europe because they take low status and low skilled jobs that local residents wont accept. Although they are receiving low pay in European standards they are receiving far more than they would receive if they would at home millions of Asians migrated in the 19th century as time contract laborers, recruited for a fixed period to work in mines or plantations. When there contracts expired many would settle permanently in that country. More than 33 million Chinese currently live in permanently in other countries.

    what where two major quota laws?
    what is the current quota law?
    in the next ten years who will be the most major minority group?

    Cultural Problems Faced While Living in Other Countries- Sheik
    Admission to another country does not end a immigrants problems. Citizens in host country may dislike the newcomer’s cultural differences. U.S attitudes (YouTube) LEDC - Discrimination towards immigrants Opposition towards immigrants intensified when immigrants came from northern and Western Europe. The immigrants who didn’t suffer much were the German and Irish immigrants Europe. Italians Russians poles and other southern and eastern European countries faced more hostility. A government study in 1911 reflected popular attitudes when it concluded that immigrants from southern and eastern Europe were racially inferior. More recently citizens in California and other states have voted to deny undocumented immigrants access to most public services, such as schools, day care, and health centers. The laws have been difficult to enforce and of dubious constitutionality, but their enactment reflects the unwillingness on the part of many Americans to help needy immigrants. Whether children of recent immigrants should be entitled to attend school and receive social services is much debated in the u.s. guest workers

    in Europe many guest workers suffer from social conditions.the guest worker is typically a young man who arrives alone in a city. he has little money for food, housing, or entertainment, because his primary objective is to send home as much money as possible.many western Europeans dislike the guest workers and oppose government programs to improve their living conditions.political party's that support recrictions on immigrants have gained support in countries like France and Germany. guest workers

    what are three different cultural traits that host countries may dislike?
    whats a brain drino
    which European country has the most immigrants?

  • Key Issue #4 – Why do people migrate within a country?

  • Migration Between Regions in a Country - Chey
  • For most regions of New Zealand, in-migration from other regions approximately matches out-migration to other regions. But some places, such as Bay of Plenty, have consistently gained population through internal migration. In recent years, Auckland has switched from net gains to net losses.

    Figure 1 shows the numbers of people who had moved into or out of each of New Zealand's 16 regions during the five-year period before each census. For instance, the left-most grey dot in the "Wellington" panel shows that approximately 40,000 people who were living in the Wellington region in 1981 had been living elsewhere in New Zealand five years earlier. The hollow dot above it shows that 50,000 people who were living elsewhere in New Zealand in 1981 had been living in Wellington five years earlier. The black dot at the bottom shows that the combined effect of these inward and outward moves was a net loss of 10,000.
  • Figure 1
    Numbers of Internal Migrants (Thousands)
    By region
    1981–2006 Censuses
    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
  • At first sight, the fact that most regions simultaneously have large inflows and outflows is strange. If thousands of people decide that they would be better off moving into a particular region, why do thousands of other people decide that they would be better off moving out? The answer is that the people moving in and the people moving out are typically seeking different things. For instance, the out-migrants could be young people moving to the big city for employment, while in-migrants were middle-aged people looking for a good place to raise a family.

  • Over the whole period covered by the 1981–2006 censuses, the region with the biggest net gains from internal migration was Bay of Plenty, which received 48,700 more people than it lost. The region with the biggest net losses was Southland, which lost 28,800 more people than it received.
  • Recently, however, migration patterns have been changing. In 2001–2006, the region with biggest net gain (8,200) was to Canterbury, and the region with the biggest net loss (18,100) was not Southland but Auckland.
  • The fact that Auckland has the largest migration flows is perhaps not surprising, since Auckland has by far the largest population of any region (1.3 million in 2006). Measuring migrants as a percent of total population gives a better sense of people's propensity to move into or out of a region. Figure 2 shows migration flows as percentages of regional populations. The region with the greatest proportional losses to internal migration in 2001–2006 was Nelson, followed by Gisborne.
  • Figure 2
    Internal Migrants as Percent of Population
    By region
    1981–2006 Censuses
    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
  • Inspection of figure 2 suggests that large regions such as Auckland and Canterbury tend to have smaller migration flows, relative to population size, than small regions such as the West Coast and Nelson. Figure 3 showing migration rates versus population size, makes this relationship explicit.

    Figure 3
    Migrants as Percent of Population Versus Population Size
    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

    The same relationship between population size and migration exists among countries. Just as small regions, such as Nelson or Tasman, have higher migration rates, so do small countries, such as New Zealand.

  • Migration within municipalities, between municipalities, between counties and between regions, by the person's age and sex. Absolute figures and age-specific rates. 2007:
  • Migration Within One Region - Chey
  • Joel E. Cohen of Rockefeller University and Columbia University discusses his work on developing mathematical models to predict human migration patterns. The growing pace of globalization has increased the level of human migration as individuals and families move from one country or continent to another in order to escape hardships or to seek a better future. The world's future stability will require the various countries who will lose and receive people to be prepared for this trend. In this interview, Cohen discusses how he and his colleagues tackled this problem by developing a sophisticated mathematical model that gives policy makers an better estimate of which countries and regions will face declining populations and which ones will grow as people move around the world. The United Nations and other agencies are interested in using this new approach, which is a departure from traditional population modeling and was supported by the National Science Foundation.
  • Overview of Internal Migration:
    Comprehension Questions:
    1. What is the difference between in-migration & out-migration?
    2. How does population size affect migration?
    3. What two factors of a person affect their likeliness to migrate?
    4. What contributed to the biggest net gains from internal migration between 1981-2006?
    5. How has recent globalization affected migration?
  • Special Topics:

  • Life and Research of E. G. Ravensten (p.85 +86, p.89, and 112) and the 11 Laws of Migration: - Sierra
  • Life and Research of E.G. Ravenstien
  • Born December 30, 1834 and Died March 1913
  • Born in Frankfurt am Maine, Germany
  • He was a German-English geographer and cartographer
  • Handy Volume Atlas (1895; seventh edition, 1907)
  • A Life's Work (1908)
  • The New Census Physical, Pictorial, and Descriptive Atlas of the World (1911)
  • Go to fullsize image
  • Ravestein's theories made two main points about the distance that migrants travel to their new homes.
  • Most migrants relocte a short distance and reamin within the same country.
  • Long-distace migrants to other countries head for major centers of econmic activity
  • The laws of Migration
  • 1. Most migration is over a short distance.
    2. Migration occurs in steps.
    3. Long-range migrants usually move to urban areas.
    4. Each migration produces a movement in the opposite direction (although not necessarily of the same volume).
    5. Rural dwellers are more migratory than urban dwellers.
    6. Within their own country females are more migratory than males, but males are more migratory over long distances.
    7. Most migrants are adults.
    8. Large towns grow more by migration than by natural increase.
    9. Migration increases with economic development.
    10. Migration is mostly due to economic causes.
  • 11. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations
  • File:Ernst-Ravenstein-Balkans-Ethnic-Map-1880.jpgRavenstien Map of Turkey
  • Comprehesions Questions
    1. what does the map display?
    2. What is migration?
    3. What is the 11 laws of migration?
    Life and Research of Warren Thompson (P.58-62) and the Demographic Transition Model: - Sierra

    Life and Research of Warren Thompson

  • Demographer Warren Thompson developed the demographic transition model in 1929.
    The model focuses of observed changes in birth and death rates of individualized countries Go to fullsize image

    The Demographic Tranistion

    The demographic transition is a process with several stages, and every country is in one of them. The process has a beginning, middle, and end, and barring a catastrophe such as a nuclear war it is irreversilbe. Once a country moves from one stage of the process to the next, it does not revert to an earlier stage.

    The four Stages are:
    Low Growth
    High Growth
    Moderate Growth Low Growth
    Go to fullsize imageDemographic Transition Model
    Comperhesion Questions
    1. Who developed the demographic transition model?
    2. What year was it created?
    3. What does the model focuse on?
    4. what are the four stages?

    Life and Research of Immanuel Wallerstein and the Core Periphery Model: - Catherine
  • Life of Immanuel Wallerstein
  • Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

    • Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein is a U.S. sociologist and a social scientist, or world systems analyst.
    • He attended Columbia University and got a Bachelor’s degree, an Associate’s degree, and a PH.D.
    • He then became a professor of sociology at McGill University.
    • Then he became a professor of sociology at Binghamton University, until his retirement in 1999.
    • He was the head of the Fernand Braudel Center for the study of economies, historical systems, and civilization until 2005.
    • In 2000, he joined the Yale Sociology department as Senior Research Scholar.
    • He’s a member of the Advisory Editors Council of the Social Evolution & History Journal.
    • In 2003 he received the Career of Distinguished Scholarship Award from the American Sociological Association.
      Core Periphery Theory
    • Wallerstein rejects the the notion of a "Third World," saying there is only one world connected by a network of economic exchange relationships (world system), in which the "dichotomy of capital and labor" and the "endless accumulation of capital" by competing agents accounts for frictions. This is known as the World Systems Theory.

    • He characterizes the world system as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from the periphery to the core.
    • The core is the developed, industrialized, democratic part of the world, and monopolizes the most profitable activities.
    • The periphery is the underdeveloped, raw material-exporting, poor part of the world.
    • The market is the means by which the core exploits the periphery.
    • There are 4 temporal features that Wallerstein defines: cyclical rhythms, which represents the short-term fluctuation of the economy, seular trends, which is the deeper long run tendencies (economic growth or decline), contradiction, which is a general controversy in the system, usually concerning some short-run vs long run trade-offs, and crisis, which occurs if circumstances brings about the losing of the system's structure.
    • The world economy has divisions of labor with core, semi-peripheral, and peripheral zones.
    • The core zone is made up of free countries that dominate others without being dominated.
    • The semi-periphery zone are the countries that are being dominated, but dominate others as well.
    • The periphery zone are the countries being dominated.

    Chapter 3 Migration - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
    Secular Trend (Economic Decline)

    Critical Questions What were some accomplishments of Immanuel Wallerstein?
    What did Wallerstein think about the Third World?
    What are 4 temporal features that Wallerstein defines?
    What are the core zones, semi-periphery zones, and the periphery zones?
    Give an example of each.

    The Evolution of U.S. Policy towards Immigration from 1800-2008: -Catherine
    • 1875 Act: Supreme Court declared that regulation of US immigration is the responsibility of the Federal Government.
    • 1882 The Chinese Exclusion Act: Prohibited certain laborers from immigrating to the United States.
    • 1885 and 1887 Act: Alien Contract Labor laws which prohibited certain laborers from immigrating to the United States.
    • 1891 Act: The Federal Government assumed the task of inspecting, admitting, rejecting, and processing all immigrants seeking admission to the U.S.
    • 1892 Act: On January 2, a new Federal US immigration station opened on Ellis Island in New York Harbor.
    • 1903 Act: This Act restated the 1891 provisions concerning land borders and called for rules covering entry as well as inspection of aliens crossing the Mexican border.
    • 1907 The US immigration Act of 1907: Reorganized the states bordering Mexico (Arizona, New Mexico and a large part of Texas) into Mexican Border District to stem the flow of immigrants into the United States.
    • 1917 - 1924 Act: A series of laws were enacted to further limit the number of new immigrants. These laws established the quota system and imposed passport requirements. They expanded the categories of excludable aliens and banned all Asians except Japanese.
  • Immigration has an increasing effect on the population.

    • 1924 Act: Reduced the number of US immigration visas and allocated them on the basis of national origin.
    The cubans can stay in the United States but the Haitians go back, what do you think? This is a picture about the Wet Foot Dry Foot Policy which means that Cubans can stay but Haitians can't.

    • 1940 The Alien Registration Act: Required all aliens (non-U.S. citizens) within the United States to register with the Government and receive an Alien Registration Receipt Card (the predecessor of the "Green Card").
    • 1950 Passage of the Internal Security Act: Rendered the Alien Registration Receipt Card even more valuable. Immigrants with legal status had their cards replaced with what generally became known as the "green card" (Form I-151).
    • 1952 Act: Established the modern day US immigration system. It created a quota system which imposes limits on a per-country basis. It also established the preference system that gave priority to family members and people with special skills.
    • 1968 Act: Eliminated US immigration discrimination based on race, place of birth, sex and residence. It also officially abolished restrictions on Oriental US immigration.
    • 1976 Act: Eliminated preferential treatment for residents of the Western Hemisphere.
    • 1980 Act: Established a general policy governing the admission of refugees.
    • 1986 Act: Focused on curtailing illegal US immigration. It legalized hundred of thousands of illegal immigrants. The 1986 Immigration Act is commonly know as the 1986 Immigration Amnesty. It also introduced the employer sanctions program which fines employers for hiring illegal workers. It also passed tough laws to prevent bogus marriage fraud.
    • 1990 Act: Established an annual limit for certain categories of immigrants. It was aimed at helping U.S. businesses attract skilled foreign workers; thus, it expanded the business class categories to favor persons who can make educational, professional or financial contributions. It created the Immigrant Investor Program.
    • 2001 USA Patriot Act: Uniting and Strengthening America by providing appropriate tools required to intercept and obstruct terrorism.
    • 2003 Creation of the USCIS: As of March 1, 2003, the US immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) becomes part of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The department’s new U.S. Citizenship and US immigration Services (USCIS) function is to handle US immigration services and benefits, including citizenship, applications for permanent residence, non-immigrant applications, asylum, and refugee services. US immigration enforcement functions are now under the Department's Border and Transportation Security Directorate, known as the Bureau of US immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).

    Mexican Congress tries to change U.S. policy

    History of U.S. Policy on Immigration


    What is the Chinese Exclusion Act? What kind of effect does immigration have on the U.S. population?
    What act enforced visas?
    How does immiration polices tie into migration?

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