Chapter 11 IndustryThis is a featured page

Key Issue #1 - Where is Industry Distributed?

Subtopic: Industry in Europe - Catherine A.

Western Europe appears as 1 industrial region on a world map but has 4 main industrial districts.

  • Western Europe’s 4 main industrial districts are the UK, the Rhine-Ruhr Valley, the mid-Rhine, and northern Italy.

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

The United Kingdom/the Rhine-Ruhr Valley/the Mid-Rhine/Northern Italy

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

  • The UK dominated world manufacturing during the 19th century, producing more than the rest of the world combined.

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

  • The UK lost its international industrial leadership in the 20th century.

  • The Industrial Revolution diffused to Europe and North America in the 19th century, then the rest of the world in the 20th century.

  • Political instability delayed the diffusion in Europe.

  • Europe’s political problems retarded the development of modern transportation systems.

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

  • Iron and steel manufacturing has concentrated in the Rhine-Ruhr Valley.

  • The mid-Rhine region became a major industrial center when Germany was split into 2 countries.

  • The French portion of the Mid-Rhine region contains Europe’s largest iron-ore field and is the production center for 2/3 of France’s steel.

  • Southern and Eastern Europe countries joined the Industrial Revolution during the 20th century.

  • The Po Basin has attracted textiles and other industries because of workers willing to accept low wages and inexpensive hydroelectricity.

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

Russia’s 4 leading industrial areas in the European part of the country are the Central industrial district, St. Petersburg, Volga, and Urals.

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

Central district/St. Petersburg/Volga/Urals

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

  • Russia’s oldest industrial region is centered around Moscow.

  • St. Petersburg was 1 of Russia’s early nodes of industrial innovation.

  • Situated along the Volga and Kama rivers, this district grew rapidly when many plants in the Central and Eastern Ukraine districts were occupied by the invading Germany army.

  • The Ural mountain range contains more than 1,000 types of minerals.

  • Industrial development is hindered by a lack of nearby energy sources.

  • Kuznetsk is Russia’s most important manufacturing district east of the Ural Mountains.

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

  • The Donetsk coalfield contains 1 of the world’s largest coal reserves.

Donetsk.jpg (55468 bytes)Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Coalfield

  • Outside the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe’s leading manufacturing area in Silesia. It’s an important steel production center.

Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008

Silesia/Steel Production

Comprehension Questions:

What are the 4 main industrial regions in Western Europe and Russia?
What industry or manufacturing makes these regions the main sources for industrialism?
What slowed down the diffusion of modern transportation systems in Europe?
Why was development in Russia hindered?

Standards Statement:

Subtopic: Industry in North America - Elliot C.

Industry arrived a bit later in the United States than in Western European countries like France and Belgium, but it grew much faster. At the time of independence in 1776, the United States was a predominately agricultural society, dependent on the import of manufactured goods from Britain. Manufacturing was more expensive in the United States than in Britain because labor and capital were scarce, and shipping to European markets was expensive. By 1860, the United States had become a major industrial nation, second only to the United Kingdom. However, except for textiles, leading U.S. industries did not widely use the new industrial processes. Instead, many engaged in processing North America's abundant food and lumber resources. Industries such as iron and steel did not apply new manufacturing techniques on a large scale in the United States until the final third of the ninetenth century.

Manufacturing in North America traditionally concentrated in the northeastern quadrant of the United States and in southeastern Canada. The region comprises only 5 percent of the land area of these coutries but contains one-third of the population and nearly two-thirds of the manufacturing output. Within the North American manufacturing belt, several heavily industrialized areas developed:

  • The oldest industrial area in the northwestern United States is sourthern New England.

  • The Middle Atlantic area, between New York City and Washington, is the largest U.S. market.

  • A linear industrial belt developed in upper Ney York State along the Hudson River and Erie Canal.

  • The area between Pittsburgh and Cleveland was the nation's most important steel producing area in the nineteenth century.

The western Great Lakes are extends from Detroit and Toledo, Ohio, on the east to Chicago and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on the west.

Comprehension Questions:
1. What is the oldest industrial area in the United States?
2. What kind of society was the United States in 1776?

Standards Statement:

Key Issue # - Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions?

Subtopic: Situation Factors - Eric G.
Manufactuers buy from companies and individuals who supply inputs,such as materials,energy,machenary,and supporting services. They sell to companies and individuals who purchase the product. All manufactueres try to minimize the aggregate cost of transporting finished products from their plants to consumers.
Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
Truck transporting products.

The farther something is transported the higher the cost so a manufacturer tries to locate its factory as close as possible to locate its factory as close as possible to both buyers and sellers. A company that obtains all inputs from one source and sells all products to one customers can easily compute the location for its factory that minimizes transport cost. If the cost of transporting the product exceed the cost of transporting inputs.

Truck transporting.

For some manufactures minimizing where to locate costs is the most critical factor determing where to locate a factory.

Comprehension Questions:
What mode of transportation does most companies used to transport materials.
Why companies like to travel short distance.
What factor is most important to factories.

Standards Statement:Geography Standard 4: The physical and human characteristics of places
Because it talks about the places where the trucks have to go and the distances.

Subtopic: Site Factors - Sheik K.
Three main factors are labor, land, and capital. The cost of these three factors varies from one location to another, both with countries and between regions of the world. The most important site factor at a global scale is labor. Minimizing labor costs is important for some industries, and the variation of labor costs around the world large.
Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
Around the world, approximately 150 million people are employed in manufacturing, according to the UN international Labor Organization (ILO). China has around 20% of the worlds manufacturing workers, and the U.S has around 10%.
Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
A labor-intensive industry is one in which wages and other compensations paid to employees constitute a high percentage of expenses. Labor costs an average of 11 percent of overall manufacturing costs in the U.S, so a labor intensive industry would have a much higher percentage than that. The reverse case, an industry with a much lower than average percentage of expenditures on labor, is considered capital intensive.

A labor-intensive industry is not the same as a high wage industry. “Labor intensive” is measured as a percentage, whereas “high wage” is measured in dollars or other currencies. For example, auto workers are paid much higher hourly wages than textile workers, yet the textile industry is labor intensive whereas the auto industry is not.

Production of apparel and textiles, which are woven fabrics, is a prominent example of an industry that generally requires less skilled, low cost workers. The textile and apparel industry accounts for 6% of the dollar value of world manufacturing but a much higher 14% of world manufacturing employment, an indicator that it is a labor intensive industry. The industry accounts for an even higher percentage of the world’s women employed in manufacturing.

The availability of land, in the narrow sense of a portion of the earths surface, is not a critical factor in industrial location at the scale of world region or country. Land is suitable for constructing a factory can be found in many places.

“Land” is a critical site factor if considered to encompass natural and human resources in addition to terra firma. Not every location has the same climate, topography, recreational opportunities, cultural facilities, and cost of living. Some executives select locations because they are attracted to the distinctive amenities of a site. Attractions could be relatively mild climates and opportunities for year round outdoor recreation activities or proximity to cultural facilities and major league sports franchises.

Industries may be attracted to specific parcels of land that are accessible to low cost energy sources. Prior to the industrial revolution, many economic activities were located near rivers and close to forests, because running water and burning wood were the two most important sources of energy. When coal became the dominate form of industrial energy in the late eighteenth century, location near coalfields became more important.

In the 20th century, electricity became an important source of energy for industry. Electricity is generated in several ways by using coal, oil, natural gas, running water, nuclear fuel, and to a very limited degree, solar energy and wind

Manufacturers typically borrow funds to establish new factories or expand existing ones. The U.S motor vehicle industry concentrated in Michigan early in the 20th century largely because the regions financial institutions were more willing than eastern banks to lend money to the industry’s pioneers.
Chapter 11 Industry - AP Human Geography @ GPHS 2008
The ability to borrow money has become a critical factor in the distribution of industry in LDCs. Financial institutions in many LDC’s are short of funds, so new industries must seek loans from banks in MDC’s. but enterprise may not get loans if they are located in a country that is perceived to have an unstable political system, high debt level , or ill advised economic polices.

Comprehension Questions:
why is labor the most important site factor ta a global scale?

Standards Statement:
Standard statement 14 and 16 apply to this topic. The reason why this topic apply to 14 is because in the united states for example in the early 20th century when the car industry was concentrated in Michigan because the regions financial institutions were more willing than eastern banks to lend money to the industry’s pioneers. That’s where the banks that had the most money that there were willing to lend it were located at. The way that 16 applies is that industries tent to be located where the resources that the need to put into production are located.

Key Issue #3 - Where is Industry Expanding?

Subtopic: Changing Distirubtion Within More Developed Countries - Ashley L.
The intraregional scale, factories in MDC's have relocated from the center of the cities to peripherals locations. At the interregional scale, factories have relocated from traditional cluster to regions not traditionally associated with manufacturing. Historically most factories located inside cities for a combination of situations and site factors. A city offered an attractive situation proximity to a large local market and convenience in shopping to a national market by rail. A city also offered an attractive situation proximity to a large supply of labor as well as source of capital. The site factor that cities found increasingly difficult to provide land suitable for manufacturing. Factories require space to accommodate large machinery and to maneuver bulky inputs of products. Modern factories are more likely to be suburban or rural than near the center of the cities Contemporary factories generally require large tracks of land, because they operate more efficiently when laid out in one-story buildings cities.

In addition to providing space for one-story buildings locations on the urban periphery are also attractive to factories to facilitate delivery of inputs and shipments of products.

Manufactoring has shifted toward the south and the west in the US.

The Principle lure for many was entacted by the Right to work laws

Comprehension Questions:
1. Why do contemporary factories require large tracks of land?
2. Can a city offer an attractive situation proximity?
Standards Statement:

Subtopic: New Industrial Regions - Sierra M.

Comprehension Questions:

Standards Statement:

Key Issue #4 - Why Are Location Factors Changing?
Subtopic: Attraction of New Industry - Chey S.

Going Green

The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) or in some cases The Second World is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
NICs are countries whose economies have not yet reached first world status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts. Another characterization of NICs is that of nations undergoing rapid economic growth (usually export-oriented). Incipient or ongoing industrialization is an important indicator of a NIC. In many NICs, social upheaval can occur as primarily rural, agricultural populations migrate to the cities, where the growth of manufacturing concerns and factories can draw many thousands of laborers.

NICs usually share some other common features, including:
  • Increased social freedoms and civil rights.
  • Strong political leaders.
  • A switch from agricultural to industrial economies, especially in the manufacturing sector.
  • An increasingly open-market economy, allowing free trade with other nations in the world.
  • Large national corporations operating in several continents.
  • Strong capital investment from foreign countries.
  • Political leadership in their area of influence.
  • Lowered poverty rates.
Newly Industrialized Contries as of 2009:
Newly industrialized countries as of 2009

A distinguished panel of industry experts discuss who is using nanotechnology and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) to create viable solar energy, cheaper and cleaner water treatment, better batteries, and what other green innovations are being furthered by nanotech and MEMS? Including moderator David Scott Lewis, SVP, Zytech Solar, Pankaj Dhingra, CEO, Nanostellar, Inc, Deepak Srivastava, CTO, Nanoexa, Inc and Vince Caprio, VP and Event Director, Nano Business Alliance.

Article Links:

Obama's Green Dreams

Going Green

Website Link:

NIRO: New Industry Research Organization

Comprehension Questions:
  1. What is the main attraction of new industry?
  2. What is a NIC?
  3. What are some common features of a NIC?
  4. What is the NIRO's main goal?
  5. How is nanotechnology affecting today's industries?

Standards Statement:

My wiki discusses the main attraction of new industry. Which basically means what is a new industry built it. My research showed that 'Going Green' is the main focus of new industry. It not only saves industries lots of money, but it also helps stop global warming. My wiki shows how different people feel about industries going green. For the most part, everyone agrees on the fact that 'Going Green' may be our future. It is quickly becoming a worldwide trend that more than likely will help save our planet.

Subtopic: Renewed Attraction of Traditional Industrial Regions - Daniel W.

While industry is pulled to non industrial areas with cheap labor for development, some industries are reinvesting and redeveloping traditional industrial regions for new industry. There are two factors to that advantage utilizing traditional industrial sites for new industries; proximity to skilled labor and just-in-time delivery.

Our traditional idea of industry comes from the model of Henry Ford's production lines. The Fordist model does not require highly skilled labor and is ideal for relocation the developing world. The Japanese industrial management has influenced a Post-Fordist approach to production. The tradition of their collectivist culture informed their approach to production by making everything team oriented for problem solving and maximizing efficiency.
Industries like Computer Manufacturing and Women’s and Girl’s cut and sew apparel requires skilled workers still found in traditionally industrialized areas.

Garment Manufacture in U.S. Computer Manufacturing USA

Proximity to market is a key factor in lowering the costs of production. With Just-In-Time delivery industries save money by; manufacturing close to the actual demand and not having to hold onto extra inventory. In the instance of Dell and Gateway computers each unit is built to order to the customer’s preference upon demand which eliminates keeping inventory all together. The main problems with the Just-In-Time delivery model is supply disruption can halt production. Such disruptions may include deliberate disruptions such as a strike or a transportation slow down. Additionally “Acts of God” such as natural disasters or Terrorism can disrupt production.

Challenges with Just In Time Delivery

Comprehension Questions:

1) Why do certain industries find it more advantageous to reinvest for new industry in Traditional Industrial
2) Why is the Fordist Approach a better choice for LDC's?
3) What are the benefits and risk to Just-In-Time Delivery?

Standards Statement:
My wiki discusses access to markets and costs of production so it is relevant to Geography Standard 11 which examines networks of economic interdependence on different spatial levels. My wiki discusses the availability of skilled labor and unskilled labor and how that impacts where certain industries must locate which relates to Geography Standard 4 as skilled or unskilled workers are a human characteristic of place and also Geography Standard 16 the distribution of resources, in this case HUMAN resources.

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